PCOD (Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease)

What Is Polycystic Ovarian Disease(PCOD)

PCOD is a condition in which a woman’s level of the sex hormone estrogens and progesterone is out of balance. This leads to the growth of ovarian cysts (Benign masses on the ovaries)

PCOD can cause problems with a woman’s menstruation cycle infertility, cardiac functions and appearance.

According to the U.S. Department of Health and human services, between 1 in 10 and 1 in 20 women of childbearing age suffer from PCOD.

What causes PCOD

While the exact causes of PCOD are unknown. Doctors believe that hormonal imbalance and genetics play a role, and women are more likely to develop PCOD. If their mother or sisters also has the conditions.

Overproduction of the hormone androgen may be another contributing factor. Androgen is a male sex hormone. That woman’s body also produces. Women with PCOD often produce higher than normal levels of androgen. This can affect the development and release of eggs during ovulation, excess insulin (A hormone that helps converts sugar and starch into energy) may cause high androgen levels.

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Symptoms of PCOD

Symptoms of PCOD typically start soon after a woman begins to menstruate. The type and severity varies from person to person. The most common characteristic of PCOD is an irregular menstrual cycle.

Because PCOD is marked by a decrease in female sex hormones. This condition may cause women to develop certain male characteristics such as:-

  • Excess hair on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs or toes.
  • Decrease breast size
  • Deeper voice
  • Thin hair
  • Acne
  • Weight gain
  • Infertility
  • Depression

While not symptoms of the disease many women with PCOD have other concurrent health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. These are linked to the weight gain typical in PCOD patients.

How to diagnose PCOD

There is no definite test for PCOD. To make a diagnosis your doctor will prefer a physical and pelvic examination to look for signs of PCOD, Such as swollen ovaries or a swollen clitoris.

Blood test for hormonal measurement.

Ultrasonography test of the lower abdomen.

Potential Complications of PCOD

Women with PCOD have a higher risk of developing:

  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Sleep apnoea
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Heart attack
  • Diabetes
  • Breast cancer

If the affected becomes pregnant, the doctor may refer the person to a doctor who specializes in high-risk pregnancies. Women with PCOD have a high rate of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, and premature delivery; they may need extra monitoring during pregnancy.

The earlier your PCOD is diagnosed and treated, the lower your risk of developing these complications,

Talk with your doctor about what PCOD means for your overall health and how you can prevent serious complications.


PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) is a hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. It is characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess androgen (male hormone) levels, and the presence of multiple small cysts on the…